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衣索比亞的民主 不會隨歐巴馬總統空降而至

Barack and Michelle Obama greet Ethiopian PM Hailemariam Desalegn and Ms. Roman Tesfaye at a U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit in 2014. Official White House Photo by Amanda Lucidon, released to public domain.

在2014年的美國─非洲領導人高峰會,歐巴馬總統與夫人接見了衣索比亞總理海爾馬里亞姆‧德薩連(Hailemariam Desalegn)及其夫人羅曼‧特斯法耶(Roman Tesfaye)。(圖為白宮攝影師Amanda Lucidon所攝官方照片)

美國總統歐巴馬在7月締造了歷史,成為第一位到訪衣索比亞的在位總統,同時在非洲聯盟前發表演說

部分人權擁護者指控,歐巴馬總統這一次訪問衣索比亞的計劃,將帶給衣索比亞政府名不符實的讚譽。衣索比亞政府打壓當地媒體工作者,造成了數十人遭到拘留甚至被判處多年刑期,其中有六位為全球之聲社群的成員。執政黨於今年五月的大選獲得了全數的國會席次,遭國人懷疑執政當局涉及操弄選舉制度。

於歐巴馬總統到訪前,當局釋放了幾位部落客與記者,失望及憤怒的聲浪才漸趨和緩。

President Barack Obama and Ethiopia Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn hold a press conference at the National Palace

巴拉克·歐巴馬與海爾馬里亞姆·德薩萊共同主持記者會。(圖為白宮官方照片。)

訪問期間,歐巴馬總統及衣索比亞總理海爾馬里亞姆‧德薩連(Hailemariam Desalegn)會同衣索比亞傑出人物參加國宴,其中有藝術家、運動員以及政治家。然而,衣索比亞的藍黨領導人Yilikal Getnet回絕了國宴邀請,表示「朱門酒肉臭;路有凍死骨。」

衣索比亞─奧羅莫事務擁護者Jawar Mohammed在臉書上發表對於歐巴馬支持當局的不滿:

The US is now firmly and officially endorsing authoritarianism in Ethiopia

When we look at the statements by US officials Donald Booth (former ambassador to Ethiopia who said the 2010 election was good enough), Wendy Sherman (Deputy Secretary of State), Susan Rice (national security adviser) and now president Obama who in his speech twice declared the regime is democratically elected, we reach a conclusion that the United States [has] decided to publicly align itself with the Ethiopian authoritarian regime, both in words and deeds. The US has always supported this regime practically through massive aid, however, even George Bush's administration maintained verbal criticism of the authoritarian nature of the regime. The US has now gone blunt as Obama's administration has officially and openly endorsed the ‘developmental dictatorship’ narrative. Why is that?

1) Somalia- after the attempt to replace Ethiopia by Kenya and Uganda as its own extended hand for messing with Somalia's internal affairs failed to produce result, America is now back to the old tactic of fully relying on Ethiopian army and intelligence.

2) China- While US remains increasingly dependent on Ethiopia for its security interest, China has developed unmatched influence in the economy. William Davison nicely summarized this reality in his latest report, writing ” When Barack Obama became the first sitting President of the United States to touch down in Ethiopia’s capital on Sunday evening, it was at an airport being upgraded using a $250-million Chinese loan. His convoy then zipped along a six-lane urban expressway, also funded by the Export-Import Bank of China, to Meskel Square, where the two lines of a new Chinese-built electric railway intersect. Towering over the capital’s southwest, he may have spotted the headquarters of the African Union, a $200 million giveaway from China’s leaders.”

Such investment gives China significant influence not only over Ethiopia but also the rest Africa through the African Union which is located there.

美國儼然以官方立場為當局政權背書。

看著美國的官方聲明,唐納‧布思(Donald Booth,前駐衣索比亞大使)認為2010年的大選結果已然夠好了,有溫蒂‧雪蔓(Wendy Sherman,國務院副秘書長)、蘇珊·萊斯(Susan Rice,國家安全顧問),最後加上在公開演說中兩度聲明當局政權乃經由民主程序選出的歐巴馬,從行為與言語上再再顯示美國早已決定公然與當局政權結盟。美國向來透過大量的資助作為扶持政權的手段,然而,就連前總統小布希任內都還會表面上批評當局政權,美國現今在歐巴馬的統治下,何以正式、公開支持「發展式專制」政權?

索馬利亞─美國近年來想以肯亞、烏干達取代衣索比亞,作為其干預索馬利亞的傀儡政權未果,決定回頭沿用老戰術,完全仰賴衣索比亞的軍力及情報。

中國─在美國基於國安利益而更加依賴衣索比亞的同時,中國在經濟上已展現不容小覷的影響力。William Davison在他最新的報告中為我們總結了這項事實:在星期天晚上歐巴馬以美國首位在位總統之姿所降落的衣索比亞首都的機場,是靠中國資金貸款 2.5億升級而來;他的車隊所行經的六線城市快速道路,也是由中國進出口銀行出資舖建;來到梅斯克爾廣場,中國新建造的兩條電鐵交會於此。之後他可能會注意到矗立在首都西南方的非洲聯盟總部,便是由中國國家主席捐贈兩億元的成品。

大把的投資,讓中國不只在衣索比亞站穩腳步,也透過位於此地的非洲聯盟影響著同位於非洲的其他國家。

回應Jawar的評論,Amin Kedir建議

Dont depend on external body to bring change, justice, democracy, etc for your internal issues. Mr. Obama come for his own benefit (his country benefit), dont expect more changes from Mr.Obama.

千萬別仰賴外來政權為國內議題帶來改變、正義或民等。歐巴馬先生是為了自身(國家)的利益而來,不要對他寄予厚望。

Kedir Tibeso也不對歐巴馬抱有期待

Dictators are always dictators, and america want ethiopia for its own benefit. i do not expect any thing from obama.

獨裁者就是獨裁者,美國也是為了自身利益前來伊索比亞。我並不會對歐巴馬抱有任何期待。

綜合Jawar的評論, Mohammed Siraj也表示了意見

Excellent analysis. Those who anticipated long for America to liberate them, be informed that America [is a] pragmatic country that run after its own interest. This is a good opportunity to get calm and think [about] the ineffective path being traveled so long.

精闢的見解。一堆人老是期待美國解放他們,之後才曉得美國終究現實,只做對自己有利的事。該是時候冷靜下來思考:走這麼一段路卻徒勞無功,意義何在?

Abo Ethio指出,問題不在歐巴馬身上,真正的問題在於以前都靠種族凝聚為反對派,卻缺少因意識型態而團結的反對勢力行動:

As long as z opposition groups are not united and show their strength (tangible), USA will continue to supporter z opperssor. You should hv to make note on what he spoke in Kenya, regarding ethnic based politics……. We will not have a strong alternative as long as we continue to organize our politics based on ethnic groups rather than the well founded political ideology n understanding of z geo-politics.

只要反對派不團結,去形成一股反對勢力,美國仍舊會繼續支持打壓民主的政權。我們該去注意歐巴馬針對基於種族的政治型態,在肯亞所發表的意見……。若只靠種族去組織政治勢力,而不利用既有的政治意識型態、地緣政治脈絡,勢力就不會有壯大的一天。

許多對這次拜訪提出意見的評論者下了總結,衣索比亞人不該企盼美國為他們建立民主政府,國家的命運應當自己掌握。於是Falmataa Lamii寫道

[…]This is more than enough for us that USA Compromise Democracy with Security!! They are running after their national security. They don’t care about innocent people killed and jailed by those dictators! The western world (USA) always pleased dancing over the dead bodies the innocent people and wining of innocent blood!!

Therefore no more begging USA to generously give us Democracy!!! The western world (USA) officials (OBAMA) are not daddies of Democracy. But it is the result of united hands of the people! The united hands of our people are stronger than that of Western world (USA)!

Let us do that and reign the democracy we are longing for!!!!

[…]對於美國為了自身國家安全而犧牲掉衣索比亞的民主,我們受夠了!他們只會按照國家安全行事,根本不在乎死於獨裁者或因而身陷囹圄的無辜人民!西方國家(美國)只會踩著屍體狂歡、暢飲無辜者的鮮血!

別再乞求美國慷慨解囊施舍我們民主了!西方國家(美國)官方(歐巴馬)不會是民主之父。民主是人民團結的成果!我們聯手的力量絕對比西方世界(美國)來得強!

讓我們攜手同行,為我們長久以來渴忘的民主奮鬥!

Adam特別提到歐巴馬在非洲聯盟公開演說時所提的支持總統任期限制:

Great speech Mr President. I hope that The African Union council must adopt new policy for African governors or promote maximum two terms in office for all African President. This will help growth and developments of the continent.

非常精彩的演說。我希望非洲聯盟議會將採用您為各國首領建議的新政策,或推動非洲總統僅得連任一次的限制,進而改善非洲大陸的成長與發展。

註:本篇貼文於2015年8月10日自臉書刪除。

若想進一步了解歐巴馬拜訪衣索比亞期間發生的大小事,請到Horn Affairs blog閱讀精選要聞


校對:YK Chen

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