我們翻譯全球之聲的訊息,讓全世界可以聽見我們的聲音。

閱讀更多 語言翻譯  »

埃及至今仍擺脫不了性騷擾和童婚問題

2011年埃及議會選舉,婦女排隊投票。相片由聯合國婦女權能署於2011年12月2日發佈,本文依創用CC授權使用

埃及人口發展部長哈拉.尤瑟夫(Hala Yousef)曾於2015年指出,埃及15%的婚姻屬於童婚,儘管2008年已將婚姻年齡限制提高到18歲,童婚在社會上仍時有所聞,特別是在貧困地區。

童婚問題不僅違反兒童權益,也常導致兒童直接遭受暴力虐待,其中受害者幾乎都是女童。

一份2001年的調查指出,29%的已婚兒童曾遭丈夫拳腳相向。開羅美國大學(American University of Cairo)社會研究中心2014年的研究則發現,18歲以下的已婚女孩中,27%有過被家暴的經驗。

此外,根據2016年聯合國小組的一則報導,埃及對於知名女權運動人士的迫害,正是導致埃及在保障女性權益道路上遲遲沒有進展的原因:

The continuous persecution of women human rights defenders such as Azza Soliman and Mozn Hassan… establishes and reinforces a pattern of systematic repression of the Egyptian women’s rights movement, aiming to silence and intimidate those working tirelessly for justice, human rights and equality.

政府持續迫害包括阿札.索利曼(Azza Soliman)和莫茲.哈山(Mozn Hassan)等女權人士……這些舉動在社會上製造出一股反對女權的氣氛,並加深對女權運動的壓迫,試圖恫嚇這些為正義、人權及平等奔走不懈的運動人士,為的就是要讓他們噤聲。

為瞭解相關問題,全球之聲特別採訪致力於女權運動超過十年的埃及社運人士薩瑪.摩瑟爾(Samah Mansur)。

埃及女權運動人士薩瑪.摩瑟爾(Samah Mansur)。相片經允許使用。

摩瑟爾任職於「適當溝通技巧發展中心」(Appropriate Communication Techniques for Development Center,簡稱ACT)的性別與婦女權益單位,同時也是「拒絕兒童販賣」(Say No To Child Trafficking)計劃的成員,該組織致力於監督和記錄埃及的兒童販賣和童婚問題。她也協助發起「正視騷擾」(I Saw Harassment)計劃,希望引起大眾的關注、遏止埃及的性騷擾歪風。

此外,摩瑟爾在防止對女性施暴的研究貢獻,也讓她於2007年獲頒聯合國婦女發展基金組織的獎項。

作者(Nevena Borisova,以下簡稱「NB」):可以跟我們談談您開始從事女權運動的契機嗎?

Samah Mansur (SM): I’ve been fortunate to come from a family where volunteering is considered absolutely important. My parents believed that the best gift they could ever give me is to help people in need. I was allowed to spend copious amount of time at charities, and shelters to help orphans, battered women, and people in need, beyond what I was taught in school and so nurtured me into volunteer lover that I am today. Since 2003, I have been involved in the non-profit sector and I joined the Appropriate Communication Techniques for Development (ACT) which works on fighting all types of violence against women. I am lucky because I am able to choose what to do and I am absolutely passionate about everything I do.

摩瑟爾(以下簡稱「SM」):我很幸運地來自一個相當重視投入志工的家庭,我的父母認為培養我成為一個願意幫助有需要的人,是他們所能給我的最好的禮物。也因此我可以投入大量的時間在慈善機構和收容所協助孤兒、受虐婦女和有需要的人,我在這些經驗中學到的遠比學校教給我的更多,造就了今天這個熱愛從事志工服務的我。我從2003年開始和非營利組織有一些往來,並且加入了適當溝通技巧發展中心(ACT),這個組織致力於打擊各種對女性的施暴行為。我很慶幸自己能選擇想做的工作,並且熱愛我所從事的一切。

NB:您是「拒絕兒童販賣」計劃的成員,就您所知,埃及的兒童販賣問題現況為何,我們必須採取哪些作法?

SM: In Egypt, child marriage and child trafficking are a social phenomenon which primarily affects girls who live in extreme poverty in rural areas, and is becoming more prevalent in urban areas, as well as in Upper Egypt. Twelve percent of them are married before they turn eighteen. One major contributing factor is the wealthy men from Egypt, and the Arab region, including the Gulf Countries, who frequently visit Egypt to acquire “temporary marriages and tourism marriages” with underage girls. Girls below the age of fourteen are forced into marriage. These marriages are often facilitated by the girl’s parents and are arranged through marriage brokers, sheikhs, lawyers, community leaders, etc., who take bribes for registering these illegal marriages of underage girls. After a while, these girl brides are in very vulnerable positions. They are either left abandoned and pregnant, taken by force to serve as maids in faraway households, or in many cases subjected to abortions.

These marriages, considered a form of child trafficking and modern day slavery, force young brides to work as maids and servants in abusive settings where a monthly compensation is received and channeled by special brokers. The money goes to the girl’s unemployed male siblings and father.

SM:童婚和兒童人口販賣是埃及常見的社會問題,受害的多是來自鄉村地區赤貧環境的女孩,而且這個現象在都市和上埃及地區也越來越普遍。其中12%都是未滿18歲就進入婚姻。導致這種現象最主要的一個原因,是埃及與阿拉伯地區(包括波斯灣阿拉伯國家)的富有男子頻繁前往埃及尋求「短暫婚姻和觀光式婚姻」體驗,而對象往往是未成年少女。許多14歲以下的女孩在非自願的情況下結婚,促成婚姻的通常是女孩自己的父母,並由婚事仲介商、酋長、律師、部落領袖等人負責安排。他們幫忙登記這種與未成年少女結婚的非法婚姻,並從中收取賄賂。結婚之後,這些童婚新娘的處境便會十分險峻,不是身懷六甲被拋棄,就是被送到偏僻地區的家庭當女傭,甚至在很多情況下,只能選擇墮胎。

這種被認定為是一種兒童人口販賣和現代社會的奴隸制度,強迫年輕新娘在不人道的環境下從事女傭和奴僕工作。他們每月領的工資要交由仲介處理,這些錢最後會進到女孩家裡那些沒有工作的兄弟和父親口袋中。

NB:除此之外,您還協助發起「正視騷擾」計劃,能不能請您進一步說明埃及的婦女性騷擾問題?

SM: Sexual harassment is a major problem in Egypt. Studies show that large majorities of women have been subjected to it, often on the street or public transportation. And the problem is deeply rooted. For this reason I participated in establishing the I Saw Harassment Initiative which works on monitoring and documenting sexual harassment crimes against women.

SM:性騷擾現象也是埃及社會的一大問題。研究調查顯示,大部分的婦女都曾經受到性騷擾,無論是走在街上或搭乘大眾運輸工具都可能遇到。這在埃及已經是根深蒂固的惡習,所以我才會參與推動「正視騷擾」計劃,監督和記錄婦女所受到的性騷擾犯罪案件。

NB:埃及的女性就業機會如何?

SM: Egypt ranks low in gender equity. The 2015 Global Gender Gap Index, ranks Egypt at 136 out of 145 countries worldwide. Women have significantly lower participation in the labor force than men (26% vs 79%) and lower literacy (65% literacy for women vs 82% of males).

We have 89 (14.9%) women in the parliament, 14 are appointed and 75 are elected.

SM:埃及的性別平等排名很低,根據《2015年全球性別落差指數報告》,埃及在全球145個國家中排名第136名。女性在勞動力的參與程度也大幅低於男性(分別是26%與79%),識字率也較男性低(65%與82%)。

女性在議會中僅佔89席(14.9%),其中14位是由政府指派,65位是由人民選舉產生。

展開對話

作者請 登入 »

須知

  • 留言請互相尊重. 內含仇恨、猥褻與人身攻擊之言論恕無法留言於此.