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這部數位小說敘述了1998年印尼排華事件中,針對華人的暴力行為

這部數位圖像小說敘述了那場發生於1998年、最終使得印尼政府被推翻的排華暴動,以及那些受到攻擊的印尼華人的故事。

1998年五月,印尼全境發生暴動,示威民眾要求當時已連任超過三十年的總統蘇哈托(Suharto)下台。儘管暴動使政權更迭,卻也使上千無辜人民--尤其是華裔印尼人--因而受傷、被性侵或被殺害。許多Orang Tionghoa(指擁有華人血統的印尼人)更隨著極具針對性的暴力行為愈演愈烈而選擇逃離印尼。

一份在1998年十月公開的政府報告揭露,雖然的確有部分針對印尼華人的暴行係屬突發事件,但資料顯示,大多數的事件似乎都是為政府或軍方勢力所支持的滋事團體所策動。報告也列出很多印尼華人女性被性侵的案件。

二十年過去了,1998年被攻擊的受害者及他們的家人仍持續尋求正義。

墨爾本藝術家拉妮‧普拉梅斯提(Rani Pramesti)創作的圖像小說《華人低語》(此為書名暫譯。譯註:原文Chinese Whispers,在英文中也有傳話遊戲或以訛傳訛之意)即描述了1998年這場迫使她離開摯愛家鄉的悲劇,書中也提及其目擊1998年暴動事件的女性故事。

全球之聲訪問她,談論這本小說及開始這個企畫的動機:

The Chinese Whispers was inspired by my personal experiences of how the May 1998 racial violence impacted my sense of identity as well as by the historical context of May 1998.

I noticed how 1998 became an important unspoken issue (among) Chinese Indonesian diaspora in Australia.

I can’t speak for other people’s experiences. But I can speak about mine. My family and I were spared from (the) 1998 looting, rape, and violence but we lived the era where we were subjected to politically motivated racism. Being raised unequivocally Indonesian, a proud one that is, the 1998 riot questioned my identity.

Through the Chinese Whispers, I want to reveal what politically motivated racism (PMR) could do to people, (and it) doesn’t matter how many years after it happened. PMR has real human costs, not just in Indonesia but the entire world today.

《華人低語》的靈感源於我的自身經驗:1998年五月的種族暴力事件對我身分認同的影響;也源於1998年五月暴動事件的歷史背景。

我注意到1998年的事件已經在移居澳洲的印尼華人間成為敏感話題。

我不能代表其他人述說他們的經驗,但我可以說出自己的。我的家族在1998年的事件中倖免於搶劫、性侵及暴力行為,但我們在那年代曾飽受有政治動機的種族主義(politically motivated racism)之苦。毫無疑問我作為印尼人被撫養長大也以此自豪,1998年暴動事件讓我質疑我的身分認同。

透過《華人低語》,我想呈現有政治動機的種族主義(PMR)會對人們造成什麼影響,無論事件過了多少年。PMR以真正的人類成本為代價,不只在印尼,而是整個今日世界。

她也解釋為什麼以「華人低語」作為小說名稱:

During the creative process with the community, we talked about many things and everything. Yet, when I brought up the events that took place in 1998, of our whereabouts and what not, the voices in the room were reduced to whispers.

As a student of dramatic arts, I learned to observe tones, body languages, expressions. What I came across during the meetings and dramatic workshops, 1998 held a certain significance to the community.

Many said that the 1998 riot is something taboo to talk about. It remains sensitive, it’s hard to talk about the events, but taboo’s not the word to describe it.

我和社團成員在共同創作時無話不談。但當我提起1998年發生的事件,像是當時在哪裡等等,說話聲就變成了低語。

身為表演藝術學生,我學會觀察語調、肢體語言和表情。根據我在會議和戲劇工作坊的經驗,1998年的事件對社團成員有特殊意義。

很多人說1998年暴動事件是不能談論的禁忌。這件事還是很敏感,很難以啟齒,但不該用禁忌這個詞來描述它。

以下則是她對作品的期許:

One day I attended a poetry reading by Mark Gonzales, one of his poems reads “We cannot heal what we will not face.” That rang true to me.

20 years on, 1998 is barely acknowledged. There [are] a lot of things to be done in terms of healing, to obtain some forms of justice. I’m not only talking about healing at the personal level, but also as a nation.

I want my readers to remember what 1998 entails and to be moved by the experiences of individuals who went through it.

In my work, my 12-year-old persona experienced having her identity torn apart by politically motivated racism.

I love how dramatic arts contributed in telling my personal stories. After all, despite the macro stories we hear everywhere, in the end, we are all human beings, we all have our micro stories and that is how we connect at the most profound level — from one person to another.

某天我去了馬克‧貢札雷玆(Mark Gonzales)的讀詩會,其中有一句詩是「不面對傷口就無法治癒它」。 我很認同。

20年過去了,1998年的事件仍缺乏關注。還有很多必須完成的事:止痛療傷、爭取某種形式的正義。不只個人需要療傷,整個國家都是。

我希望讀者能記得1998年的事件造成的影響,也能因經歷事件的個體經驗而感動。

在我的作品中,有政治動機的種族主義使12歲的主角感受到她身分認同的撕扯。

我喜歡用表演藝術述說自己的故事。畢竟宏觀故事無所不在,可是到頭來我們都是凡人,都有自己的微觀故事,這也是我們深度連結彼此的方式,一個人連結著另一個人。

《華人低語》其中一頁。經許可使用。

《華人低語》目前已在印尼發行。英文版本預計於2018年年底完成。你可以在拉妮的網站上找到她的作品,也可以透過Facebook專頁Instagram與她聯絡。

校對:FangLing

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