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若昂‧洛倫索:首位接見堅定政府批判者的安哥拉總統

12月5日,安哥拉日報的頭版。標題為「國家元首向民間伸出友善雙手」。照片中安哥拉總統若昂·洛倫佐(João Lourenço)與盧迪·貝朗(Luaty Beirão)握手,後者因「策劃叛亂行為」於2016年被判入獄5年半。照片來源:安哥拉日報傳真截圖。

12月4日,安哥拉總統若昂·洛倫索(João Lourenço)在總統府與公民社會組織、新聞記者和批評政府的倡議人士舉行了正式會談,這是該國國家元首前所未有的創舉。

這次會議似乎標誌著該國時局的轉變。前任總統若澤·愛德華多·多斯桑托斯(José Eduardo dos Santos)自1975年安哥拉獨立以來,便一直是安哥拉的領導者,其政府因虐待活動家、記者和國際非政府組織而臭名昭著。2016年12月,洛倫索便取代[fr]多斯桑托斯,成為執政黨安哥拉人民解放運動([pt] Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola,簡稱MPLA,自1975年安哥拉獨立以來一直為執政黨)的黨主席,也在2017年8月該黨於國會大選取得多數後擔任總統一職。2017年9月就職後,洛倫索宣布了從經濟到媒體的廣泛改革,並開除了幾名與多斯桑托斯家族有關聯的高級官員。

4日受邀前往總統府參與會談的包括記者拉斐爾·馬克斯(Rafael Marques)和饒舌歌手盧迪·貝朗(Luaty Beirão),兩人分別於2015年和2018年遭控「侮辱公共權威」和「策劃叛亂行為」等多項罪名,因而登上了國際頭條。

2015年6月,在美國學者吉恩·夏普(Gene Sharp)非暴力抵抗著作《從獨裁到民主-解放的概念框架》(From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation)一書的讀書會上,盧迪·貝朗和其他16名社運人士被捕。2016年3月,這17人分別被判處兩年至八年不等的監禁,三個月後被轉變為軟禁。

2017年6月,馬克斯因為他在2016年寫的一篇文章而面臨法庭審判,該文指控當時的檢察總長若昂·瑪麗亞·德索薩(João Maria de Souza)參與貪汙交易,以獲取一筆可觀的海濱房產。2018年7月,他被宣告無罪。自1999年以來,他所從事有關貪污調查的新聞工作使他多次坐牢。

貝朗在Twitter上回憶起與洛倫佐會談之前所面對的質疑。

They have said that I wanted to stage a coup,
to dethrone Zé [former president José Eduardo dos Santos],
to set myself up in the Palace.
I answered:
The only way to ever achieve this
Will be by walking through the front gate
As an illustrious guest.

人們說我想發動政變,
推翻「澤」[前總統若澤·愛德華多·多斯桑托斯],
好讓自己進入總統府。
我回答:
實現這一目標的唯一途徑
就是穿過前門
當個傑出的客人就好了

會晤當日傍晚,馬克斯在他創辦同時身兼編輯的網站馬卡·安哥(Maka Angola)上寫道:

O presidente João Lourenço encorajou-me hoje a prosseguir com as minhas investigações sobre a corrupção e a encaminhar os casos à Procuradoria-Geral da República.

A luta contra a corrupção, incluindo o repatriamento de capitais, é uma das prioridades do seu governo. Para o efeito, conta com o contributo dos cidadãos na moralização da sociedade.

O presidente manifestou a sua visão sobre a relação entre o Estado e os cidadãos, lamentando que estes, muitas vezes, vandalizem o património público e refletindo sobre o que deve ser feito para alterar as mentalidades.

President João Lourenço encouraged me today to continue my investigations on corruption and to refer the cases to the Attorney General's Office.

The fight against corruption, including the repatriation of capital, is one of the priorities of his government. To this end, it counts with the contribution of citizens for the moralization of society.

The president expressed his view on the relationship between the state and citizens, lamenting that the latter often vandalize the public heritage and reflecting on what must be done to change such attitudes.

若昂·洛倫佐總統今天鼓勵我繼續調查貪腐問題,並將案件提交檢察總長辦公室。

打擊貪腐,包括返還資金,是當前政府的優先事項之一。為此,它關係到公民對社會道德化的貢獻。

總統表達了他對國家與公民之間關係的看法,對後者經常破壞公共遺產表示痛惜,並思考必須採取什麽措施來改變這種態度。

這次會議在社群媒體上引起了一些反響。對於安哥拉大學研究所的學生埃斯梅爾·蒙霍戈(Esmael Munhogo)來說,這標誌著安哥拉的「新時代」:

Encontro de João Lourenço com Membros Da Sociedade Civil! Gostei da iniciativa do presidente! Ontem eles eram vistos como criminosos por defenderem o povo, hoje são vistos como grandes defensores da verdade.

The meeting of João Lourenço and members of civil society! I liked the president's initiative! Yesterday they were seen as criminals for defending the people, today they are seen as great defenders of the truth.

若昂·洛倫佐與公民社會成員見面了!我喜歡總統的倡議!昨天的他們因為保衛人民而被視為罪犯,今天,他們被看作是真理的偉大捍衛者。

不過其他人認為這不一定代表了變化:

One other aspect: The reception of activists by the president does not mean he is open to “dialogue with all Angolans”, or that he wants to dialogue on key political issues, such as the hegemony that the MPLA continues to exercise over the state. This is the greatest political evil that the country is victim to.

這裡提供另一個觀點:總統接待社運分子,並不意味著他願意「與所有安哥拉人展開對話」,也不意味著他想在關鍵政治議題上進行討論。例如安哥拉一直是一黨專政的現況,就是這個國家遭受最大的政治罪惡。

一些安哥拉民眾強調,他們希望政府採取具體行動來改變該國的經濟和社會狀況。路易斯·庫蒂尼奧(Luís Coutinho)說:

Que os diálogos não se transformem em conversas de boi dormir. É bom as pessoas conversarem, mas factos são factos e os jornalistas devem sentir-se sempre à vontade em relatar os mesmos, por muito que incomodem (ou até ofendam) o poder instalado. Os instalados no poder, têm sempre tendência para abusar dele

May the dialogues not turn out to be just a lot of hot air. It is good for people to talk, but facts are facts and journalists should always feel free to report them, even if they upset (or even offend) the installed power. Those in power have a tendency to abuse it.

希望對話不會變成空談。溝通是件好事,但事實就是事實,記者應該擁有報導這些事實的自由,即使這些報導將使掌權者不開心(甚至感到被冒犯)。當權者有濫用權力的傾向,限制報導的自由。

這場會晤的其他出席人員還包括:歐蒙加(Omunga)宗教協會的領導人何塞·帕特羅西尼奧(José Patrocínio)、亨德卡(Handeca)協會的亞歷山德拉·塞梅奧(Alexandra Semeão)和正義、和平與發展協會的瑪麗亞·盧西亞·西爾維拉(Maria Lúcia Silveira)。據網路媒體SAPO Angola報導,與會人士於會後接受媒體才訪時表示,他們「被允許坦率地、毫無顧慮地表達所有想法」。


譯者:林佳音

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