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尼泊爾原住民塔魯人一度強制實施的刺青藝術瀕臨絕跡

類別: 南亞, Nepal 尼泊爾, Ethnicity & Race, Indigenous 原住民, Technology 科技, Women & Gender, 公民媒體, 藝術與文化, 青年

圖為61歲的Kalarvati Chaudhary在談論她身上檳榔花、孔雀以及其他源於大自然母題的刺青時,回憶起她的年輕時光。照片:CK Kalyan Tharu。經授權使用。

好幾世紀以來,刺青一直是居住於尼泊爾南部平原的塔魯原住民(Tharu [1])生活中不可或缺的一部分。現在,隨著塔魯人開始面臨現代化,刺青已在年輕世代中失去其重要性。

塔魯女性會在手臂、雙腿和胸部上刺青 [2],以此美化外表。刺青在塔魯語中被稱為khodna和godna,圖案的靈感得自於大自然。最常見的刺青母題是線條、點、十字以及其他各種自然元素。

這些刺青圖騰的名稱呼應了它們在自然中的對應物:badam butta (花生樹叢)、suruj ke daali (太陽光芒)、thakari mutha (順手的梳髮工具)、supari ke gachh (檳榔樹)、和 majur (孔雀)等等。

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I saw this beautiful woman walking along the #dagar (village road). I stopped her and praised her tattoo. She gave me thanks and I requested her for photo. She agreed. I took her photo. This pattern of tattoos #khodaha #godana are found in Eastern Tharu Community. But I forgot asking the name of such patterns. It became like a black spots in the moon 🌛 when I made a mistake there. [3]

A post shared by SHANKAR CY 180° /ʃəŋkəɹ / [4] (@shankarian) on

我看到這名美麗女子在#dagar [5](村中小路)上行走。我請她停了下來,讚美了她的刺青。她謝過了我的讚美,而我進一步請求為她拍張照。她同意了。我拍了她的照片。這些刺青圖案 #khodaha [6] 和#godana [7]出現於東部的塔魯人聚落。但我忘了問這種圖案的名稱了。它看來像是月亮中的一些黑點,我在這搞混了。

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Today I have been to Dumariya, Sunsari (Ramdhuni Municipality/ ward#1). I met some beautiful Tharu women. I requested with them to contribute giving their pictures with tattoo. Locally the tattoo is called #khodaha or #godana. In the seen picture, this pattern of the khodaha is called #surujkedaali (the rising sun)! [8]

A post shared by SHANKAR CY 180° /ʃəŋkəɹ / [4] (@shankarian) on

今天我去了桑薩里(Sunsari)的Dumariya (拉姆敦尼區政府Ramdhuni Municipality/ 行政區#1 [9])。我遇見了幾位美麗的塔魯族女性。我請求她們讓我拍攝她們刺青的圖案。在當地刺青被稱為 #khodaha [6] 或 #godana [7]。在這張圖片中,這種刺青圖案被稱為 #surujkedaali [10] (升起的太陽)!

傳統上來說,年輕女性能夠決定是否刺青來做為永久的珠寶性質裝飾,但所有已婚女性都必須要在婚前於腿部刺青,通常是在3月的婚禮季時進行(也就是在尼泊爾曆法Bikram Sambat曆法中的Falgun-Chaitra月份)。然而,今日,無論是已婚或是年輕塔魯族女性都不再選擇刺青了。

在1975年出版的論文Tatooing Among the Tharus of Dang Deokhuri, Far Western Nepal [11]中,研究者D.P. Rajaure捕捉了塔魯族刺青中的美感本質:

塔魯族人刺青的主要原因是為了追求美感。根據她們,年輕未婚女性不需要刺青,也因此不選擇用刺青來自我裝飾的原因是,她們明亮且色彩鮮豔的cholyas (一種後背開口的袍子)本來就已足夠美麗,裝飾性很強了;但是已婚女性需要刺青,這是因為要補償她們因穿著donning jhulwa或是dainaha jhulwa這種雙排扣前側開口的長袖女性襯衫而缺乏的美感及裝飾性。

腿部下緣的刺青一般代表著sitha (樹枝或稻草)、chulha (爐子)和phunna (懸吊的母題);而於腿部中段的刺青代表著majur (孔雀) 和sithas;至於腿部最上端的刺青代表中央的一隻孔雀,另外三頭有一些phunna和其他母題,把中間的孔雀框住。

傳統的刺青方式相當疼痛且可怕。Tikaniya (塔魯族語中意指刺青師)使用刺針以及從芥油燈的煤灰中所取得的天然黑色染料。緩慢的刺青過程有時會造成接受刺青者昏厥。刺青師會以牛糞磨擦於要接受刺青的部位,接著以清水清潔該部位。在那塊皮膚區域乾燥之後,會用芥子油來軟化皮膚表面。Tikaniya接著會描出圖案設計,再以刺針穿刺皮膚。

一名來自尼泊爾奇旺的塔魯族長者回憶道:

在以前,也就是和我一樣年紀的女孩年輕時,有個來自印度的男人會到這來,幫我們的身上刺青。當我朋友在刺青時,我可以看到她的眼淚因為太過疼痛而流了出來,我也還記得我自己因為就是下一個要接受刺青的人所以很害怕。那一晚我根本睡不著覺。隔天,我問我母親為什麼我必須要刺青。她說:「誰會娶一個沒有刺青的女孩呢?除非妳刺青了,不然沒人會娶妳。

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"In the old days, when girls of my age were young, a man from India would come and do these tattoos in our bodies. When my friend was being pierced, I could see tears in her eyes because of the pain and I remember being afraid as I was next. That night I couldn't sleep. The next day I asked my mother why I had to get the tattoo. She said, "Who will marry a girl without a tattoo? No one will take you unless you have them." I never understood that. Later I also learnt that in our culture tattoos were also a worship to nature. We don't take anything with us when we die, but I will take these tattoos. It is like a gift of this life and this nature for me to take to my afterlife." (Thagani Mahato, Meghauli, Chitwan) [12]

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「在以前,也就是和我一樣年紀的女孩年輕時,有個來自印度的男人會到這來,幫我們的身上刺青。當我朋友在刺青時,我可以看到她的眼淚因為太過疼痛而流了出來,我也還記得我自己因為就是下一個要接受刺青的人所以很害怕。那一晚我根本睡不著覺。隔天,我問我母親為什麼我必須要刺青。她說:『誰會娶一個沒有刺青的女孩呢?除非妳刺青了,不然沒人會娶妳。』我從不了解這點。後來,我也得知在我們的文化中,刺青也是一種對自然的禮贊。我們在死亡時什麼都帶不走,但是我能帶著這些刺青離開。這就像是這一世以及這個自然所給我的禮物,讓我帶著進入來生。」

 

除了美觀作用之外,塔魯族女性刺青的原因是要避開尼泊爾皇室的關注,後者對於與部落及原住民有所連結的刺青文化深痛惡絕。塔魯女性的刺青阻止了尼泊爾皇族綁架部落女孩將她們當為性奴 [14]的可能。

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Can you see tattoos all over this lady's body and arms? Kanni Devi Tharuni from Saptari says, "It was the cheapest way to adorn oneself with unerasable jewellery." The Tharus in southern plains of Nepal had a rich culture of getting tattos on their bodies but due to modernisation this practice has been on decline. In fact, the youngsters don't get tattoed at all. Getting tattoed was compulsory for married Tharu women in the past. She says, "This tattoo will go with me when I die." ——————— #tattoo #tharus #terai #Nepal #culture #tradition #marriedwomen #tattoing #inking #instapic [15]

A post shared by Sanjib Chaudhary [16] (@sankuchy) on

你能看到這位女士的身上及手臂上都是刺青嗎?來自Saptari 的Kanni Devi Tharuni表示:「戴上這種抹不去的珠寶是裝飾自己最便宜的方式。」在尼泊爾南部平原的塔魯人有在身上刺青的豐富文化,但由於現代化的緣故,刺青的風潮已開始消退。事實上,年輕人根本不會接受刺青。在過去,刺青是所有塔魯族已婚婦女都需要接受的。她表示:「當我過世時,刺青會跟著我一起去。」

儘管部族擁有悠長的刺青歷史,塔魯年輕人並不刺青。在村中再也找不到有經驗的tikaniya,而年輕世代也不再堅持這項已延續一世紀的傳統。

然而,由於刺青已漸漸成為潮流 [17],且出現了更安全、更快速也更容易的刺青科技,現在在網路上流行紀錄並張貼塔魯族女性長者身上的刺青圖案,激起了這種藝術形式的新風潮。

本人就紋有許多刺青的記者暨攝影師Travelin’ Mick [18]在過去15年間於世界各地旅行,紀錄了殘存的刺青文化,尼泊爾就是他造訪過的一站。若塔魯族的刺青藝術消失了,下面這些繁複的傳統刺青圖案也可能就會隨著記憶的消逝而消失:

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Highly complex traditional pattern on the legs and arms of this Tharu lady from Chitwan, Nepal. Most of their designs are stylised peacocks, grain bundles and other images from nature and agriculture #travelinmick #worldoftattoogallery #tattoforever #traditionaltattoo #tattootradition #blackwork #handpoke #linework #dotwork #tribaltattoo #legtattoo #handtattoo #inkedgirls #tattooedladies #adventure #discovery #natgeo #travelphotography #nepal #tattootournepal #tattootrip #tattootour #aroundtheworld #asiatravel #asiatour [19]

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這名尼泊爾奇旺地區的塔魯族女士的雙腿及手臂上紋有極為複雜的傳統圖樣。這些設計當中大多數是風格化的孔雀、稻穗以及其他來自自然和農業的圖案。

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Tattoos are part of the traditional lifestyle that is slowly disappearing among the Tharu of southern Nepal #travelinmick #worldoftattoogallery #tattooforever #traditionaltattoo #tattootradition #tattootour #tattootrip #tattootravel #tattootournepal #blackwork #handpoke #blacktatto #linework #dotwork #tattoophotography #asiatour #asiatravel #aroundtheworld #travelphotography #nepal #portraitphotography #portrait #natgeo #discovery #adventure [21]

A post shared by Travelin' Mick [20] (@travelinmicktattoo) on

刺青是在尼泊爾南部塔魯族的一種傳統生活方式,現在正慢慢消失。

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Life in the villages of the Tharu communities in southern Nepal hasn't changed that much. Just every year I see less and less fully sleeved ladies… #travelinmick #worldoftattoogallery #tattooforever #traditionaltattoo #tattootradition #blackwork #handpoke #linework #dotwork #tribaltattoo #tattoophotography #blacktattoo #portraitphotography #portrait #aroundtheworld #travelphotography #nepal #nepaltravel #asiatravel #asiatrip #tattootournepal #tattootrip #tattootour #natgeo #discovery #adventure [22]

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尼泊爾南部塔魯族人村莊中的生活並沒有太大改變。只是每一年我所看到的全身刺青婦女越來越少…

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Study of Tharu female tattoos from southern Nepal. Those traditional patterns that were done for hundreds of years still look really attractive #travelinmick #worldoftattoogallery #tattooforever #traditionaltattoo #tattootradition #tattootournepal #tattootrip #tattootour #tribaltattoo #nepaltattoo #asiatattoo #blackwork #handpoke #blacktattoo #linework #dotwork #tattoophotography #travelphotography #nepal #nepaltravel #asiatravel #portraitphotography #portrait #natgeo #discovery #peacock [23]

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針對尼泊爾南部塔魯族女性刺青的研究。那些運用了好幾百年的傳統圖案現在看起來仍舊相當吸引人

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Only few outsiders have ever seen the mysterious peacock backpieces of the Tharu women of Nepal. Normally they keep these magic tattoos covered… #travelinmick #worldoftattoogallery #tattoforever #traditionaltattoo #tattootradition #blackwork #handpoke #linework #dotwork #blacktattoo #magictattoo #tribaltattoo #tattoophotography #tattooart #tattoohistory #nepaltourism #nepal #tattootournepal #tattootrip #tattootour #asiatrip #asiatour #portraitphotography #portrait #aroundtheworld #natgeo #discovery [24]

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只有少數外族人曾經見過尼泊爾塔魯族後背女性神秘的孔雀刺青。一般來說,她們全身紋滿了這些神秘刺青…

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These traditional tattoos of the Tharu in Nepal look quite contemporary now… #travelinmick #worldoftattoogallery #tattooforever #tattooart #contemporaryart #contemporaytattoo #inkedgirls #tattooedladies #tattooedhands #traditionaltattoo #tattootradition #blackwork #handpoke #tattoophotography #travelphotography #nepal #terai #asiatattoo #asiatrip #asiatravel #portraitphotography #portrait #aroundtheworld #tattootournepal #tattootrip #tattootour #linework #dotwork [25]

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這些尼泊爾塔魯族人的傳統刺青現在看起來也頗具當代感的…

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Tharu great-grandmother. Among this ethnic group in the Terai area of Nepal several generations live together under one roof in a longhouse #travelinmick #worldoftattoogallery #tattooforever #traditionaltattoo #tattootradition #tribaltattoo #blackwork #handpoke #linework #dotwork #inkedgirls #tattooedladies #tattoophotography #travelphotography #nepal #tattootournepal #tattootrip #tattootour #tharu #portraitphotography #portrait #blacktattoo #asiatrip #nepaltourism #aroundtheworld #natgeo #discovery [26]

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塔魯族的曾祖母輩人士。在這個分布於尼泊爾Terai地區的部族,數個世代會一起住在一間長屋裡。

或許當塔魯族的年輕人透過社交媒體再次接觸到刺青藝術後,會融入從傳統設計中得到靈感的新色彩、設計以及圖案,進而復興這項流傳了一世紀的傳統。

本文改編版本刊登於ESC雜誌上。