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內戰邁入五週年,敘利亞特別專欄

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2011年3月15日,敘利亞首都大馬士革的反政府示威活動升溫,隨後演變成反叛軍與阿薩德政權間的武裝衝突,因此國際媒體多將這日視為敘利亞內戰的開端;根據聯合國於2015年8月的數據,至少有超過25萬的敘利亞人民在此衝突中喪生,而至2016年4月,聯合國敘利亞特使米斯杜拉(Staffan de Mistura)更表示根據他的「個人分析」,於戰爭中死亡的人數統計應調升為40萬人次。此外,根據聯合國及國際特赦組織公佈的數字,有超過110萬人在敘利亞境內反政府軍、政府軍以及激進組織伊斯蘭國的戰火下流離失所,更有超過135萬人仍在敘利亞境內迫切地等待人道救援。

本敘利亞特別報導將分為兩個段落,分別為事件簡介以及全球之聲相關文章整理;此專頁暫未設定休止期限,除編輯將持續追蹤並不定期更新資訊外,亦歡迎讀者們參與討論、提出疑義與建議。

一、事件簡介

從民主示威到內戰 
2010年12月,以突尼西亞為始的「阿拉伯之春」爆發,在西亞及北非的阿拉伯國家地區形成一連串以「民主」和「經濟」等為主要訴求的社會運動。2011年3月15日,在敘利亞南部的德拉市(Deraa)因有學童在學校的牆上留下「人民希望政權倒台」的塗鴉而遭到逮捕及虐待,引發了當地的大型示威運動。在軍方對示威民眾開火後,在全國各地隨即爆發更大規模的示威抗議,抗議者的訴求從民主改革、釋放政治犯、廢除緊急狀態法轉變為要求阿塞德(Bashar al-Assad)政權下臺。敘利亞政府採取武力方式鎮壓此波社會運動,卻反而使得更多人走上街頭,截至2011年7月,數以千計的敘利亞人民在全國各地紛紛響應此波抗議行動;同時,部分反政府民眾開始拿起武器自衛,最後也反守為攻地驅逐當地維安部隊。

內戰爆發
隨著民眾抗議規模越來越大,示威活動開始轉成了官民對峙的內戰,2011年7月29日,7名敘利亞軍官成立敘利亞自由軍(FSA)向那些攻擊平民的政府軍宣戰、並以推翻政府為最終目標。兩天後,阿薩德政權發動被媒體稱為「齋戒月屠殺」(Ramadan Massacre)的全國性鎮壓,造成超過100人死亡,衝突持續升級。2012年時,反政府軍的勢力一路延燒進首都大馬士革(Damascus)以及第二大城阿勒坡(Aleppo),總統阿薩德宣佈國家進入「戰爭狀態」(a state of war),並表示國家的施政方針及政策將調整為贏得這場戰役為目標;根據反對派活動人士所成立的違法事件紀錄中心(Violations Documentation Centre)的統計數據顯示,截至2012年11月已有超過3萬7千人喪生。2013年 6月,聯合國數據顯示死亡人數已上升至9萬人、2014年 8月時變成雙倍以上的19.1萬人,2015年8月的最新數據則為超過25萬人次

時至今日,除了逐漸轉變為意識形態的分裂,隨著國際勢力的介入以及伊斯蘭國的崛起,這場戰爭已不僅是政府和反政府勢力間的對峙。

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「每20秒,即有一名敘利亞人被迫離開家園。」#withSyria #Syria #Syria5years 取自推特@AmnestyInternational (國際特赦組織)

二戰以後最大難民潮
根據聯合國難民署的資料顯示,自從 2011年3月的衝突爆發後,估計敘利亞共有超過1,100萬人被迫離開家園,除了超過469萬人次逃至如土耳其、黎巴嫩、約旦和伊拉克等鄰近國家之外,另有約計660萬人次則在敘國境內為了躲避戰火而流離失所,僅有約計10%的敘利亞人在歐盟取得庇護,這也是自二戰結束以後最大規模的難民流亡潮,但由於敘利亞境內的戰爭未見止息跡象,難民數目仍持續攀升。

根據聯合國統計,戰爭開始前的敘利亞人口總數共有2,300萬人,而現階段共有超過原人口總數一半的人亟需人道救援,當中有 560萬名都是孩童。此外,大約有70%的敘利亞人無法取得穩定的飲用水、每3人中即有1人沒辦法攝取其最低的食物需求、超過200萬名學齡兒童無法上學、每5位敘利亞人就有4人生活在貧困之中。

二、全球之聲中文網報導彙整

2016年
二月
看網民如何反擊伊斯蘭國的社群「宣傳機器」
沒收珠寶非丹麥難民法唯一可怕的改革
巴士改裝的流動廚房供應歐洲難民熱食

三月
馬其頓突然關閉邊境,數千名阿富汗難民滯留希臘

五月
敘利亞人以更多的抗爭行動,來為革命運動五週年留下註記

六月
一位巴勒斯坦籍的敘利亞難民自述離鄉煎熬

2015年
一月
中東愛侶集結創作

十月
網民報告:對難民愛恨交織
羈押中的敘利亞網民先驅Bassel Khartabil被解送至未公開地點而引發疑懼
陸路?海路? 難民離開土耳其面對的艱困抉擇
難民危機下的送暖行動 葡萄牙捐助車隊上路
不只難民和警方陷入衝突的巴爾幹地區

2014年
三月
照片集:五個我們所要知道的敘利亞難民故事
在敘利亞難民營中的兒童藝術家

四月
我們在敘利亞的柏林圍牆
戰火之際 敘利亞富豪華麗開趴

六月
敘利亞:暴政下的愛情

八月
敘利亞:回歸燈泡發明前的生活

十月
阿勒頗 戰火摧殘的甜蜜家園
#WithSyria希望終止對敘利亞平民的無差別轟炸

2013年
一月
社群媒體通訊:敘利亞看不見的惡行

二月
敘利亞攝影家在德國攝影比賽獲得首獎
在伊斯蘭和土耳其庫德工黨夾縫中的庫德人
敘利亞:戰火下犧牲的孩童們
敘利亞:塗鴉戰

三月
敘利亞:年輕荷姆斯人鏡頭下的圍城

四月
敘利亞:來自前線的推特

六月
敘利亞:包圍老城荷姆斯週年

八月
阿薩德遭控在大馬士革郊區使用化學武器

九月
「全球樂見阿薩德繼續殺害敘利亞人」
是反戰遊行 還是阿薩德聲援大會?

十二月
敘利亞荷姆斯:昔日的大城 今日成廢墟
阿爾巴尼亞拒絕在境內銷毀敘利亞化武

2012年
一月
阿拉伯世界:照片中的一年

二月
敘利亞:部落客再度被捕

三月
敘利亞:記者遭謀害令人難以置信
世界:全球大遊行對抗敘利亞獨裁者

五月-
敘利亞:社運者的電視「自白」

七月
敘利亞:Traymseh屠殺引發悲憤情緒
伊朗:烈士巴沙爾?

八月
敘利亞:線上戰鬥教學

九月
搶救岌岌可危的敘利亞古蹟

十一月
敘利亞浩劫照片集
阿拉伯世界:敘利亞難民女孩的困境

十二月
廢墟中的霍姆斯:敘利亞的革命之城
敘利亞全面斷訊
敘利亞:「這裡是大馬士革!」

2011年
三月
敘利亞:各地抗爭、六人死亡
敘利亞:抗爭之中的血腥與失蹤
敘利亞:摧毀政權象徵
敘利亞:Ushahidi平台追蹤抗爭情況
敘利亞:恐懼籠罩德拉

四月
敘利亞:「尊嚴星期五」全國各地爆發抗議活動
敘利亞:人民欲推翻政權
埃及:為敘利亞抗爭

五月
敘利亞:革命進行式(影音)
敘利亞:反政府示威擴大、電信受阻相關報導

六月
敘利亞:為孩童未來抗爭
敘利亞:「網路名人」遭綁架
敘利亞:鎮壓依然持續
敘利亞:挺政府集會裡的 2.3 公里長國旗
敘利亞:革命裡的黑色幽默

七月
敘利亞:一個國家,兩個世界

八月
敘利亞:齋戒月前夕,坦克進入哈馬
敘利亞:推文可不可以避免一場大屠殺?
敘利亞:齋戒月大屠殺,死亡人數攀升
敘利亞:世人對巴沙爾褒貶不一

九月
阿拉伯世界:阿薩德,下一位就是你

十二月
敘利亞:釋放Razan Ghazzawi

二、全球之聲英文網報導彙整


(2014~2015文章彙集中)

2016年

六月
17 June ‘Mother, Don’t Cry If They Couldn’t Find My Body’: Remembering the 4,000 Syrian Refugees Who Died En Route to Europe
11 June ‘The Day I Became Just a Stupid Number': One Syrian Refugee's Journey to Europe
9 June The Difficulty and Uncertainty of Life in Turkey as a Syrian Refugee
8 June Surrounded by Rubble, This Flower Seller's Dreams Are on Hold in Syria
8 June One Palestinian-Syrian Man's Agonizing Decision to Leave His Home Behind

五月
9 May Syrian Activists Raise the Alarm Over a Possible Massacre in Hama Prison
2 May Aleppo Is Burning: Make Your Social Media Profile Photograph Red to Show You Care

四月
27 April Syria: What Forgiveness Doesn't Mean
3 April #IamSyrian, a Campaign to Make Every Syrian Proud
1 April #NewPalmyra Crowdsources the Majestic History That ISIS Destroyed in Syria

三月
19 March For These Syrian Women, Their 20s Have Been Defined by War
15 March #WhereisBassel: Imprisoned Syrian Technologist Is Still Missing
15 March Syrians Mark Fifth Anniversary of Revolution with More Protests

二月
16 Feb How Syrian Activists in Raqqa Are Resisting ISIS
1 Feb A Syrian Man Takes Refuge in a Korean Honeymoon Resort Island

一月
26 Jan How Netizens Are Pushing Back Against ISIS’ Social Media ‘Propaganda Machine’
23 Jan Once a Refugee in Syria, This Palestinian Woman Is a Refugee Once Again
13 Jan Netizen Report: Keeping the Spotlight on Syria’s Independent Media
5 Jan Starving to Death: Images from Madaya, Syria, You Don't Want to See

2013年度主題報導

-敘利亞的世界
13 Oct Syria: Banksy’s Crude Politics
12 Oct Nobel Peace Prize Fails to Pacify
22 Oct The Crowd in the Machine
1 Oct  How is Lebanon Dealing with the Massive Influx of Syrian Refugees?
1 Oct  The 16-year-old Saudi Who is Fighting in Syria
30 Sep Syrian-Palestinian Refugees of Rap: “The Age of Silence is Over”
23 Sep GV Face: Worldwide Media Coverage of Syria
17 Sep Do These Videos Show Iranians Fighting in Syria's War?
12 Sep How Russians Read Putin's NYT Op-Ed on Syria
10 Sep Pro-Assad And/Or Anti-War Demonstrations?
10 Sep A Political Solution for Syria
10 Sep Humour: Potential Targets in the Strike on Syria
9 Sep “World is Happy for Assad to Continue Killing Syrians
4 Sep “In Damascus All is Quiet”: Russians Report from Syria
4 Sep Drums of War on Syria Getting Louder

-倖存者的故事
26 Dec Merry Christmas from Syrian Artists
20 Dec Syria: The Free Women of Darayya
12 Dec Video: “Not Anymore: A Story of Revolution” in Syria
19 Nov Bicycles as a Solution in the Streets of Damascus
19 Oct Artists Search for Eid in Syria's War
6 Aug Syrian Pianist Malek Jandali: “We Need Freedom for True Art”
16 Jul Artists Capture a Bloody Ramadan in Syria
7 Jun Syrian Creativity: Radio SouriaLi Broadcasts over the Internet
28 May Syria Untold: Raqqa Lessons, From Freedom to Creativity in State Building
13 May ‘Syria Untold': The Storytelling of the Syrian Revolution 
9 Apr Syria: Tweeting from the Frontline in Aleppo
8 Mar Palestine/Syria: A Tale of Two Women
31 Jan Children Crisis in Syria: How You Can Help 
25 Jan Kurds Caught Between Islamists and the PKK in Syria
13 Jan Graffiti War on Syrian Walls
11 Jan Conversations: The Mayor of a Christian Syrian Village
11 Jan Social Media Buzz: The Fallout of Assad's Speech
10 Jan Conversations: A Road Trip to Idlib
9 Jan An Alawite Nurse in a Sunni Hospital in Syria
8 Jan The Last Survivors of Aleppo’s Infantry School
8 Jan Social Media Buzz: The Crimes We Don’t See in Syria
7 Jan Assad's Delusional #DonkeySpeech Scorned
7 Jan  Yesterday, I Defected from Assad's Army
4 Jan “Some Hope for a Solution in Syria” – Michel Kilo
2 Jan A New Year of Syria’s Turmoil
2 Jan Cats, Guns and Spoils of War in Rural Idlib, Syria
2 Jan Social Media Buzz: Rebels Lose a Charismatic Commander in Syria

-敘利亞難民
19 Nov PHOTOS: Five Stories About Syrian Refugees You Need to Know
2 Jul Videogame: Zaytoun, the Little Syrian-Palestinian Refugee
18 May Turkey: Syrian Refugees Targeted after Reyhanlı Blast
4 Jan An Alawite Outcast: How One Syrian Girl Lost Her Mother

-被破壞的敘利亞
16 Jul VIDEO: Historic Khalid ibn al-Walid Mosque Bombed in Syria
13 Jun Syria: Old Homs Under Siege for a Year
4 Mar Hafez Al Assad's Statue Destroyed in Syria
24 Feb Syria: “Lens of a Young Homsi”, Photographs of a City under Siege
31 Jan  Syrian photographer wins first place in a competition in Germany

-戰爭與死亡
24 Dec Blood on Camera: 18-year-old Syrian Dies Covering the War for Reuters
13 Nov Syrian Journalist Abdulwahab Mulla Kidnapped in Liberated Aleppo
20 Oct No Man's Land: Kidnapping Journalists Worsens in Syria
21 Aug Assad Accused of Dropping Chemical Bombs on Damascus Suburb Al Ghouta
2 Jul Light Weapons: Moving Pictures From Syria
13 Jun Syria: 18 Journalists Killed in January
13 Jun Syria: Criticizing Arab Silence
22 May 14-year-old Citizen Journalist Killed Covering Clashes in Syria
27 Jan Syrian Children Pay the Steep Price of War
17 Jan More than 80 Killed at Aleppo University in Syria
11 Jan How Many More Syrians Must Die?

2012年

31 Oct – Syria Destruction in Photos
10 Oct – Arab World: The Plight of Syrian Refugee Girls
19 Sep – Syria: Happy Birthday Bashar?
10 Sep – Egypt: Going Hungry to Draw Attention to the Plight of Syrians
29 Aug – Save Syria's Threatened Heritage Sites
24 Aug – Syria: You are an Embarrassment to the Revolution
23 Aug – Lebanon: It's Back to Kidnapping Time
16 Aug – Syria: #InMySyria the Streets Will Be Full of Freedom
14 Aug – Saudi Arabia: Defending the Virtue of Syrian Women?
08 Aug – Syria: Military Intervention or Civil War?
06 Aug – Syria: “I Tweeted Prime Minister Riad HIjab's Defection First”
27 Jul – Jordan: The Fate of Syrian Refugees
26 Jul – Syria: Weapons and Combat Tutorials Online
20 Jul – Syria: Videos Document a Sharply Escalating Conflict
19 Jul – Iran: “If Bashar Gets Killed, the Iranian Regime Will Call Him a Martyr”
17 Jul – Syria/Turkey: Syrian Refugees Protest Water Shortages at Kilis Camp
15 Jul – Syria: Palestinians and the Syrian Revolution
18 Jun – Syria: Regime Assailants Kill Blogger's Mother
29 May – Syria: Ambassadors Expelled in Protest at Houla Massacre
28 May – Syria: Houla Massacre Creates International Outcry
28 Apr – Syria: Television “Confession” of Activist Ali Mahmoud Othman
03 Apr – Syria: Ali Mahmoud Othman, the “Eyes of Baba Amr”, Detained
26 Mar – Syria: A Year On, From Beirut With Love
18 Mar – Brazil: Solidarity March for Syrian Revolution
18 Mar – Syria: When Assad Falls
15 Mar – Syria: “The Day We Knew What It Meant to Be Syrian”
14 Mar – Syria: Crackdown Against Journalists Continues
13 Mar – Syria: Campaign to Stop One Year of Bloodshed
02 Mar – World: Global March Against the Syrian Dictator
28 Feb – Syria: Injured French Journalist Edith Bouviez Still Trapped in Besieged Homs
28 Feb – Syria: Homage to American Journalist Marie Colvin Killed in Homs
22 Feb – Syria: Shock and Disbelief Over Murder of Journalists
18 Feb – Syria: Razan Ghazzawi and Female Colleagues Freed
17 Feb – Syria: Razan Ghazzawi Arrested … Again
08 Feb – Tunisia: Decision to Expel Syrian Ambassador Sparks Heated Debate
06 Feb – Syria: “Revolution + Blood – Oil = Veto”
05 Feb – China: Veto of UN Security Council Draft Resolution on Syria Draws Praise and Grief
10 Jan – Syria: Netizens Angered by Assad's Speech
07 Jan – Syria: The Struggle for Freedom and the End of Silence
07 Jan – Syria: Damascus “Suicide Attack” and State TV Fabrications

2011年
十二月
21 Dec – Syria: A Christmas Massacre
18 Dec – Syria: Blogger Razan Ghazzawi is FREE!
13 Dec – Syria: Razan Ghazzawi Charged, Bloggers Continue Campaign
04 Dec – Syria: Free Razan Ghazzawi

十一月
12 Nov – Syria: Virtual Sit-In Garners Global Support
12 Nov – Syria: Arab League Suspends Syria's Membership
09 Nov – Global Campaigns in Solidarity with Syria Keep Growing

十月
29 Oct – Egypt: Another Bloody Week in Syria
26 Oct – Syria: Blogger Hussein Gharir “Missing”
06 Oct – Tunisia: Arab Bloggers Discuss the Situation in Syria
02 Oct – Yemen: Friday of Victory for Syria and Yemen

九月
25 Sep – Syria: Official Websites Under Anonymous Attack
05 Sep – Lebanon: What Will be the Fate of Lebanese Prisoners in Syria?

八月
21 Aug – Arab World: “Assad, You are Next After Gaddafi!”
11 Aug – Syria: World Cities Rally Against and For Bashar
07 Aug – Syria: Death Toll Mounts as Ramadan Massacre Continues
05 Aug – Lebanon: Protest Against Syrian Regime Attacked by Loyalists
02 Aug – Syria: Can Tweets Prevent a Massacre?

七月
31 Jul – Syria: Tanks Enter Hama on Eve of Ramadan
09 Jul – Syria: Bloggers Rally for Anas Maarawi
05 Jul – Syria: Did Man Film Himself Getting Shot by Sniper?

六月
29 Jun – Spain: Hundreds Protest Against the Syrian Regime
27 Jun – Syria: Black Comedy of the Revolution
26 Jun – Syria: The Revolution and the Economy
24 Jun – Syria: Blogging Day for Syria
23 Jun – Syria: “It Feels as if Syria is Two Countries – With Two Different Realities”
23 Jun – Syria: “We Support Bashar and Want the World to Leave us Alone”
20 Jun – Syria: Protests Break Out Following Assad Speech
18 Jun – Syria: Al Assad's Cousin Quits Business for Charity Work
15 Jun – Syria: 2.3km Flag at Pro-Government Rally in Damascus
15 Jun – Syria: Crackdown Continues Despite International Outcry
13 Jun – Syria: Lesbian Blogger Amina is a Married American Man
09 Jun – Syria: True Identity of Arrested Blogger Questioned
06 Jun – Syria: ‘Gay Girl in Damascus’ Seized
03 Jun – Syria: Protesting for the Future of Children
03 Jun – Syria: Reports of Internet Blackout
02 Jun – Syria: Opposition Drafts Declaration in Antalya

五月
06 May – Syria: Reports of Telecom Disruptions as Protests Rage
06 May – Jordan: “Bring Raad Home” from Syria

四月
29 Apr – Syria: The Revolution Continues (Video)
26 Apr – Egypt: Protesting for Syria
23 Apr – Syria: Blog Interview with Opposition Activist Ammar Abdulhamid
22 Apr – Syria: The People Want to Overthrow the Regime
20 Apr – Syria: Homs Protests Attract Thousands (Video)
19 Apr – Syria: Emergency Law Lifted as Protests Continue
06 Apr – Syria: Bread and Propaganda
03 Apr – Syria: Two Returned Home Safely, Khaled El Ghayesh Still Missing

三月
30 Mar – Syria: Reactions to President Assad's Speech
29 Mar – Syria: Complexity Behind the Protests
26 Mar – Syria: Egyptian-American Tweep Accused of Spying
26 Mar – Iran: Syrians Protest “Neither Iran Nor Hezbollah!”
26 Mar – Syria: Protesters Demolish Symbols of the Regime
25 Mar – Syria: ‘Friday of Dignity’ Protests Erupt Countrywide
23 Mar – Syria: Citizen Videos Show Horror in Daraa
23 Mar – Syria: Reports of Mass Killings, and a Blogger and a Journalist Disappear
21 Mar – Syria: Protests Continue to Gain Momentum
17 Mar – Syria: Protests for Release of Political Prisoners, 38 Detained
18 Mar – Syria: Protests Across the Country, 6 Reported Killed in Dara'a

二月
08 Feb – Syria: Facebook and YouTube Unblocked, Among Others
04 Feb – Syria: No-Show for ‘Day of Anger’
01 Feb – Arab World: A Revolution Time-Table

三、結語

聯合國難民署統計資料顯示,截至2016年6月2日,已登記之敘利亞難民總數已達4,840,555人,除有210萬名登記於駐埃及、伊拉克、約旦及黎巴嫩之聯合國難民署外,另有270萬名敘利亞難民係向土耳其政府登記註冊、以及2萬9千名於北非登記的難民。

這場衝突自2011年以來已造成至少400萬人離開敘利亞,而戰火持續延燒也使得歐洲和中東其它國家的難民問題仍然不見解決的一天。由於敘利亞已變得太過危險,要知道確切的死亡人數已幾乎是不可能的事,然而仍有很多團體致力於趨近真實地記錄因這場戰爭而受害的民眾-生活狀況、逃難軌跡、死亡人數以及死亡原因。

我們邀請您與全球之聲一起關注這起仍在發生的人道危機,除了可以透過點閱上列網址以瀏覽於全球之聲所記錄的片段外,以下連結能為您提供即時甚至是第一手的消息。我們衷心希望和平的日子很快能降臨在敘利亞,也謝謝您和我們一同關心。

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Fang-Ling Hsueh / June 20, 2016 updated