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2011年巴林反政府示威

@Awadhi4: Today morning in Nuwaidrat. #Feb14 #Bahrain

@Awadhi4:努瓦伊德拉特(Nuwaidrat)的早晨。#2月14日 #巴林

巴林是個產油國,人口約120萬,位於波斯灣西岸。該國的人權紀錄不良,貧富差距極大。佔多數的什葉派跟少數但掌握權力的遜尼派有嚴重的宗教派別緊張關係,儘管巴林是個小國,但卻在戰略上對美國極為重要,因為美國的海軍第五艦隊便派駐在此。

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受到突尼西亞埃及抗爭活動激勵,2011年巴林反政府示威於2011年2月14日展開,是所謂的「阿拉伯革命時間表」上最近發起抗爭的國家之一。不過,此一示威也是源自該國長期以來的社會抗爭行動─許多在2011年發生的事件都是在回應1990年代的示威。最初二月份的示威活動是由青年倡議份子在網路上籌劃,範圍相對較小而分散。隨著安全部隊力阻遭官方封鎖的影片相片流傳到網路上(推特標籤#2月14日),加上採行暴力鎮壓並造成示威民眾傷亡,主流反對團體開始投入,參與抗爭人數逐漸增加。示威民眾呼籲警政改革,並賦予佔該國多數的什葉派平等的權利和地位,同時要求推翻阿勒哈利法(Al Khalifa,遜尼派,哈馬德國王)王室的統治。示威民眾聚集在位於首都麥納麥(Manama)的珍珠圓環(Pearl roundabout,或譯珍珠廣場)並在此搭建帳篷。2月17日,鎮暴警察對珍珠圓環發動清晨襲擊,造成數民抗議民眾身亡及百人受傷,但示威民眾仍在兩天後返回該地點並搭建另一個帳篷

3月份示威持續進行。3月14日,在巴林政府的請求及海灣合作委員會(Gulf Cooperation Council)的支持下,沙烏地阿拉伯的1,000名士兵和阿拉伯聯合大公國的500名警察進駐巴林幫助該國平息內亂,哈馬德國王宣布全國進入三個月緊急狀態,政府隨即展開鎮壓。沙烏地阿拉伯軍隊攻擊珍珠圓環,並將廣場中心的紀念碑夷為平地。隨後的數週,有數百人遭到逮捕(包括協助治療示威者的醫務人員運動員教師部落客與記者等),有些人則是在社群網站上或政府電視台上被指認為目標。許多什葉清真寺也被摧毀,而不少民眾在拘捕過程中喪命

緊急狀態在6月1日解除(比原定結束日期提前兩週),不過不少民眾仍處於受拘禁狀態。巴林政府開始審判47名醫療人員(24名醫生與23名護理人員)及民眾,而部分反對派領袖被判處終身監禁。哈瑪德國王後同意在沒有預設條件的情況下與國內所有派系展開對話,討論改革問題,但主要反對黨已於7月中旬退出對話。

面對政府鎮壓,小型抗爭仍日日持續在巴林各地展開。巴林皇家獨立調查委員會(Royal Independent Investigation Commission)在該年七月底成立,負責調查2月至3月發生的事件,調查報告原預計於10月30日公布,因故延遲至11月23日,報告結論大致包括:對於抗爭造成的人員傷亡結果,政府和反對派皆有責;官方確實涉及使用致命性武器鎮壓示威者,並部署大量警力導致平民死亡;巴林國安體系內的官員缺乏課責機制,導致了「有罪不罰」的政治文化,幾乎沒有激勵措施來避免虐囚或採取行動防止其他官員虐囚;遜尼派是一些示威者的目標,受到言語虐待,身體攻擊和襲擊他們的財產以及騷擾;官股銀行提交的有關伊朗伊斯蘭共和國介入巴林內政的證據,並未使伊朗與巴林在這段期間內的情勢之間形成明確的聯繫。

若您有任何資訊、故事觀點、或欲列入本專題報導的資源列表,請聯絡全球之聲中東與北非編輯Amira Al Hussaini

我們的工作:來自中東與北非的全球之聲部落客報導民眾如何利用網路與社群媒體來發聲,而這些文章通常會自阿拉伯文翻譯成其他語文。以下可察看巴林的最新發展。


 

全球之聲有關2011年巴林反政府示威的報導

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2012

09 Sep – Bahrain: Despite the Ban, Opposition Protests in the Capital
03 Sep – Bahrain: Leading Opposition Figures on Trial
28 Aug – Bahrain: Prominent Pro-Government Twitter Accounts Stop
30 Jul – Bahrain: Boycott the Olympics
23 Jul – Bahrain: Elderly Men Arrested for “Protecting Women” from Police
15 Mar – Bahrain: Save Bahraini Children From the Regime
11 Mar – Bahrain: Massive Rally Against the Regime
27 Feb – Bahrain: #Hungry4BH Trends Worldwide
15 Feb – Bahrain: Tweeting the Revolution's First Anniversary

2011

18 Dec – Bahrain: #OccupyBudaiyaSt Continues
17 Dec – Bahrain: A Bloody National Day, a Funeral and More Suppression
05 Dec – Bahrain: Twitter User Jailed for 66 Days for Tweeting
06 Nov – Bahrain: Reports of Military Personnel Tortured, Imprisoned, and Killed by Regime
29 Oct – Bahrain: Muharraq United Against Sectarianism
08 Oct – Bahrain: Teen Protester Shot Dead
06 Oct – Bahrain: Dr Ghassan Dhaif Tweets His Jail Experience
05 Oct – Bahrain: 15 Year Jail Sentences for Medics Who Treated Protesters
25 Sep – Bahrain: Protests on Election Eve
08 Sep – Bahrain: Medical Staff Released After Hunger Strike
06 Jul – Bahrain: Regime and Opposition Begin National Dialogue
22 Jun – Bahrain: Opposition Leaders Sentenced to Jail
06 May – Tunisia: Blog Declines Award Sponsored by Bahrain Government
05 Apr – Bahrain: Blogger “Emoodz” Detained

March 2011

30 Mar – Bahrain: Prominent Blogger Mahmood Al-Yousif Arrested
25 Mar – Bahrain: A Friday of Rage Dispersed with Tear Gas
21 Mar – Bahrain: Expats’ Part to Play
20 Mar – Bahrain: A Video Timeline of Police Brutality
19 Mar – Bahrain: Journalists Denied Entry at the Airport
16 Mar – Bahrain: Curfew Announced and An Officer's Funeral
16 Mar – Bahrain: Police and Military Clear Protesters in Manama (Videos)
16 Mar – Bahrain: A Full-Scale Attack
16 Mar – Bahrain: Bloody Crackdowns on Villages
15 Mar – Bahrain: State of National Security Called
14 Mar – Bahrain: Letter from a Blogger, as Saudi Troops Enter
08 Mar – Bahrain: Modest Numbers Turn Out in Front of US Embassy
07 Mar – Bahrain: Hit and Run at Protest
07 Mar – Bahrain: The One Dinar Protest
05 Mar – Bahrain: When Geeks Protest
05 Mar – Bahrain: Tweeps Dreaming of a Better Bahrain
04 Mar – Bahrain: Hamad Town Fight Sparks Rumours and Sectarianism
02 Mar – Bahrain: Schools Break Out in Protest (Videos)
01 Mar – Bahrain: Two Separate Rallies for National Unity

February 2011

28 Feb – Bahrain: Protests Block National Assembly Building
26 Feb – Bahrain: Minor Ministerial Changes
26 Feb – Bahrain: Day of Mourning Observed
25 Feb – Bahrain: The TAKBEER Guy Meme
24 Feb – Bahrain: Official Day of Mourning Declared
23 Feb – Bahrain: Jailed Blogger Ali Abdulemam Free
22 Feb – Bahrain: Loyalty to the Martyrs
21 Feb – Bahrain: Coming Out in Numbers in Search for Unity
20 Feb – Bahrain: Protesters Continue to Camp at Pearl Roundabout
20 Feb – Arab World: The Uprisings Continue
19 Feb – Bahrain: Withdrawal of Police as Protesters Reclaim Lulu Roundabout
19 Feb – Middle East: The Dictator's Handbook now in Bahrain
19 Feb – Bahrain: Army Withdrawing from Lulu Roundabout Area
19 Feb – Bahrain: Live Ammunition Shot at Protesters (Video)
19 Feb – Bahrain: #NickKristof Bullied on Twitter
18 Feb – Bahrain: Mourning the Dead
18 Feb – Bahrain: Crown Prince Calls for Peace on National TV
18 Feb – Bahrain: More Gunshots in Capital
17 Feb – Bahrain: Nicholas Kristof, An Eyewitness
17 Feb – Bahrain: State TV Says Protesters Had Swords, Guns and Ammunition
17 Feb – Bahrain: Protests Erupt at Salmaniya Hospital
17 Feb – Bahrain: Chilling Accounts from Witnesses to Pearl ‘Massacre’
17 Feb – Bahrain: Tanks Head Towards Capital Manama
17 Feb – Bahrain: News of Dawn Raid Provokes Rage and Disbelief
17 Feb – Bahrain: Main Hospital Fills with Lulu Roundabout Wounded
17 Feb – Bahrain: Videos of Dawn Raid on Lulu Roundabout
17 Feb – Bahrain: News on Pearl Roundabout Crackdown Flows
17 Feb – Bahrain: One Person Killed During Pre-Dawn Police Raid
17 Feb – Bahrain: Police Attack Sleeping Protesters
17 Feb – Bahrain: Police Attack Protesters at Pearl Roundabout
16 Feb – Bahrain: Safe Day for Protesters
16 Feb – Bahrain: Pro-Government, Pro-King Voices Emerge
16 Feb – Bahrain: Funeral Procession Marks Third Day of Protests
15 Feb – Bahrain: Day of Wrath Number Two
15 Feb – Pearl Roundabout, Bahrain's Tahrir Square
15 Feb – Bahrain: A Second Man Killed as Police Attack First Victim's Funeral
14 Feb – Bahrain: The Day of Wrath
14 Feb – Bahrain: Snapshots from a Day of Protest and Injury
14 Feb – Bahrain: Police Quash Today's Protests (Videos)
12 Feb – Bahrain: Fighting Sectarian Bigotry Head On
05 Feb – Bahrain: Valentine's Day or a Day of Anger?
01 Feb – Arab World: A Revolution Time-Table

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主題標籤#2月14日 | #lulu | #巴林


 

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