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新紀錄片探討緬甸對於羅興亞人的迫害源頭

羅興亞難民社區。照片經由夏希達‧圖拉加諾瓦(Shahida Tulaganova)授權提供。

一部新的紀錄片對於緬甸羅興亞穆斯林的現況,提供了歷史脈絡。

由資深戰地記者夏希達‧圖拉加諾瓦(Shahida Tulaganova)執導的電影《放逐》(Exiled),以羅興亞難民、前緬甸政府官員和激進佛教徒的視角,「揭露了緬甸在若開邦(Rakhine)逐漸升溫的暴力行為中的根源」。片中也訪問了被指控策劃整起迫害羅興亞人政策的前緬甸軍情局高官欽紐(Khin Nyunt)將軍。

緬甸絕大多數人口都信仰佛教,但也有超過一百個種族弱勢族群,包括來自孟加拉和印度、政府拒絕承認且被視為「非法移民」的羅興亞人。

近年來,在若開邦有部分羅興亞人和激進佛教團體爆發種族衝突。針對多為穆斯林的羅興亞人之仇視言論在網路上擴大

從2017年開始,在政府軍隊和若開羅興亞救世軍(Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army,簡稱ARSA)發生衝突後,數千名羅興亞人被迫逃離他們的家鄉。

許多人權組織長期報導羅興亞人在各種難民營生活惡化的情況,也批評自2015年起掌權的翁山蘇姬政府,持續先前軍政府的「滅族」政策。

歷史背景

電影《放逐》解釋了羅興亞人承受暴力行為的歷史背景

這部電影的導演圖拉加諾瓦,在2012年暴動造成羅興亞社區的大火時,首次認識到若開邦的情況。她在接下來幾年密切關注、研究這項議題,並且被激發去以當代緬甸的轉變背景講述羅興亞人的故事,而不只有強調零星發生的的暴力和人道主義危機。她告訴全球之聲:

It was very important for me to show the whole story and talk to people who set up the system of extermination of Rohingya, like former chief of Burmese military intelligence, General Khin Nyut, and show that exodus of 2017 is not a sporadic, one off outcome of violence. It has been happening as of 1978, but the world didn't know about it.

對我而言,呈現完整的故事和與建立消滅羅興亞人制度的人們對話-好比說前軍情局局長欽紐將軍-是極為重要的。2017年的撤退不是偶發性的,這是暴力行爲下的產物,而從1978年開始就一直在發生,只是沒有人知道而已。

圖拉加諾瓦在取得記者簽證時也遇到了困難,這限制了她的工作。

I had to sign several papers saying that I will not travel anywhere near Rakhine state and I had to sign those. However, I was desperate to get the point of view of people who live there, so I had to think of a Plan B. So, I have found a courageous and very talented Burmese film-director who was willing to travel to Rakhine state and interview people on my behalf. And it all worked out. Unfortunately, I was given visa for 10 days only and I was feeling like Cinderella, who has to manage to get access and film everyone I had to in such a short time. But I had fantastic and very experienced field producers in Burma who made it happen.

我必須簽署很多文件說明自己不會到若開邦附近,但我還是很想知道當地人的看法,所以我要想出一個備案。我找到一個很有勇氣也很有才華的緬甸電影導演,他願意代表我前往若開邦訪問當地居民,這下才成功。不幸的是,我的簽證只有10天,我感覺自己就像灰姑娘一樣試圖在短時間內得到許可採訪這些人,但我在緬甸的絕佳資深製作人還是讓這一切發生了。

圖拉加諾瓦意識到,她的電影不可能在緬甸放映,但她希望無論是在緬甸國內或國外的人們都能更深刻了解到這制度上對羅興亞人的迫害。她還說,《放逐》這部電影,就是一個種族弱勢族群普遍會經歷的故事。

I wish people in Myanmar see this film since it is not only about Rohingya, it is about all ethnic minorities, which face persecutions for years. I believe, that Myanmar audience can learn a lot from this film.

My target audience is the world. I tried to tell the story of genocide and this is a universal story. What happened to Rohingya echoes to what had happened to Jews during the Second World War, to Bosnians during Yugoslav war and etc- this is a story about state-organized and planned systematic extermination of an entire ethnic group. And when I talk about extermination, with Rohingya it is not only physical extermination. It is about denial of education, healthcare, childbirth – the system which is ultimately designed to kill them morally and physically. This is the most horrible part of their story for me.

我希望緬甸的人們能看到這部影片,因為這不只是關於羅興亞人,這是關於整個面對多年來迫害的種族弱勢族群。我相信緬甸的觀眾也能從其中學到很多。

我的目標客群是整個世界。我盡力把這個種族屠殺的故事傳達出去,這是個普世皆然的故事。在羅興亞人身上發生的事,可以回應到二戰時期的猶太人、南斯拉夫內戰時期的波斯尼亞人身上,這就是一個國家組織計劃系統性消滅整個族群的故事。當我說到滅絕,對羅興亞人來說,這不只是物理上的滅絕,這更是對於他們的教育、醫療保健、生育的全盤否定,這個制度就是設計來在道德和物質上終極毀滅他們。對我而言,這是整個故事最可怕的地方。

製作團隊的部分成員。照片經由夏希達‧圖拉加諾瓦(Shahida Tulaganova)授權提供。

當被問到國際上的組織能做些什麼來幫助羅興亞人時,圖拉加諾瓦呼籲聯合國官員能採取些更果斷的措施:

First and foremost, the UN and other agencies operating in the Rakhine state should recognize that they have failed both the Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims. UN was trying to play it safe and in many instances, refused to call Rohingya -Rohingya, because of the insistence of Burmese officials. So did many other foreign countries. This is wrong.

I think that serious sanctions have to be imposed on Burmese officials (military and political). I think that the world powers should recognize this is a genocide and put pressure on the government of Burma to get their act together and recognize Rohingya as nationals of Myanmar without any verification process, provide safe return of Rohingya to their villages and pay compensation for the loss of their property.

首先,聯合國和其他在若開邦的機構應該認知到他們辜負了若開的佛教徒和羅興亞的穆斯林。聯合國曾試圖在很多場合打過安全牌,並且在緬甸官員的堅持之下,拒絕稱羅興亞人為羅興亞人。很多其他國家也這麼做,但這是錯的。

我認為應該對緬甸官員(文武官員皆然)給予嚴重的制裁,我想世界強權國家們應該認知到這是個種族屠殺,並且對緬甸政府施壓,要求採取行動,承認羅興亞人是緬甸的國民,且不得附加任何認證程序,提供羅興亞人安全回到他們村莊的管道,並且賠償他們的財產損失。

以下是《放逐》的預告片:

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