菲律賓南部一原住民族Lumad廣播電台的社區廣播。 來源: Facebook。


該書的標題是「放大人民的聲音:菲律賓社區廣播的經驗與挑戰」(Amplifying the People’s Voices: The Philippine Community Radio Experience and Challenges),由國際婦女廣播電視協會(International Association of Women in Radio and Television)和Kodao製作公司出版。 [註:Kodao為全球之聲的內容合作夥伴。]

Kodao執行董事Jola Diones-Mamangun透過電子郵件分享該書的幾條重點,以及社區廣播在總統杜特蒂(Rodrigo Duterte)政府領導下面臨的當前挑戰。首先,她解釋社區廣播的意涵:

Community radio is broadcasting or ‘narrowcasting’ by a community on a topic that is of importance to them through a (usually) low-power radio transmitter (broadcasting) or a public-address system (narrowcasting). It is a form of a town-hall meeting that uses the radio program format. Both the broadcaster/s and the interviewee/s are usually members of the community themselves. If the community succeeds in putting a community radio station, they broadcast a series of programs that is similar to how other radio stations operate (eg, Radyo Sagada). If not, they can set up a public address system and place speakers around the community and the program/s usually last for just hours (eg. Radyo San Roque).

社區廣播是由一社群進行廣播或「窄播」(narrowcasting)對該社區重要的議題。廣播(通常)透過低功率無線電發射器傳播,窄播則透過公共傳輸系統播送。社區廣播是以廣播節目模式舉行的一種市民大會(town-hall meeting),廣播員和受訪者通常都是社區本身的成員。如果社區成功設立社區廣播電台,便會廣播一系列與其他電台運作方式類似的節目(例:Sagada廣播電台)。倘若失敗,則可建立一套公共傳輸系統,並在社區各處放置擴音器進行窄播,節目長度通常只有短短幾小時(例:San Roque廣播電台)。

上文前者Sagada位於菲律賓北部的科迪勒拉地區(Cordillera Region),是原住民族伊哥洛特人(Igorot)的故鄉。後者San Roque則是菲律賓首都馬尼拉大都會(Metro Manila)的都市貧困區。


There have been earlier stand-alone community radio stations in the Philippines but it was only in the early 1990s that the late Louie Tabing started the Tambuli network of community radio stations. He is acknowledged in the global community radio broadcasting movement as an Asian pioneer.

菲律賓很早就有獨立的社區廣播電台,但直到1990年代初,已故的路易·塔賓(Louie Tabing,對菲律賓和孟加拉的社區廣播有極大貢獻)才開始建立社區廣播電台的Tambuli廣播網。他在全球社區廣播運動中被公認為亞洲的先驅。

「放大人民的聲音:菲律賓社區廣播的經驗和挑戰」(Amplifying the People’s Voices: The Philippine Community Radio Experience and Challenges)。來源:Kodao。



Sustainability is the main challenge. When funding for Tambuli dried up, most of the stations became moribund, shriveling the network and stopping the project on its tracks.

Second problem are the laws that appear to discourage the establishment of independent community radio stations. For example, while there are more than a hundred Radyo Natin stations all over the archipelago—low-power Manila Broadcasting Company (MBC)-owned stations—there are very few genuine community radio stations such as Radyo Sagada. It is unjust that large networks such as MBC are given hundreds of frequencies on both AM and FM bands that it is no longer possible, for example to put a radio station in the Metro Manila area, or Cebu, Iloilo, Davao and others. What if the Dumagats of Antipolo want to have a radio station of their own? [Dumagats are indigenous peoples from Rizal province. Antipolo is part of Rizal, located east of Metro Manila].

Third, because they are non-profit, community-owned and operated, and assisted by non-government organizations, genuine community radio stations are often victims of attacks and harassments, leading to their closure or abortion of their establishment. Radyo Cagayano was burned down and its staff attacked in Baggao, Cagayan in 2006; Radyo Sugbuanon’s full operation was aborted because of threats by the police and politicians; Radyo Lumad was closed last January 2019 because of threats and harassments. NGOs that help put them up are red-tagged and some have even been killed or imprisoned.


第二個問題是,法律似乎不鼓勵設立獨立的社區廣播電台。舉例來說,雖然整個群島上有一百多個Natin廣播電台(低功率的馬尼拉廣播公司(Manila Broadcasting Company, MBC)擁有的電台),但如Sagada廣播電台這種真正的社區廣播電台卻很少。不公平的是,像MBC這樣的大型廣播網在調幅廣播(AM)和調頻廣播(FM)上佔用了數百個頻率,所以其他人根本不可能有機會--譬如在馬尼拉大都會地區、或宿霧(Cebu)、怡朗(Iloilo,另譯「伊洛伊洛」)、達沃(Davao)等地設置廣播電台。如果安蒂波洛(Antipolo)的杜馬加特人(Dumagats)想擁有自己的廣播電台怎麼辦?[註:安蒂波洛位於馬尼拉大都會以東的黎剎省(Rizal province),杜馬加特人是該省的原住民。]




These are no small challenges that could be addressed by simple problem-solving. There must a systemic social change if community radio is to finally succeed in the Philippines. It must be pursued as part of the people’s right to communication. If the marginalized are underserved by the mass media establishment, they must be allowed to be their own voice (as opposed to claims that they are voiceless and that the networkers are giving them one.)



It is under the Duterte regime that Radyo Sugbuanon and Radyo Lumad have been threatened, leading to the abortion of the former’s full establishment and the closure of the latter.




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